These matches were known as lucifers and congreves. Lucifers were a straight copy of John Walker's original friction lights of 1826-7, and were produced by Samuel Jones of 'The Light-House' at 201 Strand, London. The next development in 1832 was the 'Congreve' which contained yellow phosphorus. Top row: Bell's lucifers, 1833, with sandpaper for ignition; German congreves, 1835, by H Link, Schuttenhofen. Bottom row: Dutch lucifers for the English market, 1832; N Jones' lucifers, probably 1831. These examples are from the Bryant and May collection of firemaking at the Science Museum, London.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library