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Friedrich and Knipping camera, 1912

Friedrich and Knipping camera, 1912
4 0 c m
actual image size: 23cm x 32cm


Model. This apparatus was used to prove that crystals are composed of regular arrays of atoms. Friedrich and Knipping allowed the rays from an x-ray tube to pas through a fine hole onto a crystal of zinc sulphide set up on a goniometer (an instrument to measure crystal angles). Opposite they placed a photographic plate, which on developing showed a regular pattern of spots. This could only have been produced by the combination of a wave system and something analogous to a diffraction grating.

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© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library

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