Danish astronomer Brahe's (1546-1601) Stjerneborg (Castle of the stars) observatory on the Isle of Hven (formerly in Denmark), Sweden. Built in 1584, it was constructed mostly underground. Here Brahe made naked-eye observations from five chambers under a rotating canopy to provide shelter from the elements. Though Brahe did not believe the Earth moved around the Sun, his work provided support for the opposing view, known as the heliocentric system, proposed by Copernicus in 1543. Illustration from Brahe's 'Astronomiae instauratae mechanica' (in English, 'Instruments of the renewed astronomy' or 'Apparatus for the Foundation of Astronomy'), (Nuremberg, 1602).
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library