Sir William Huggins, British astronomer and astrophysicist, late 19th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Huggins (1824-1910) was the pioneer of stellar spectroscopy and also discovered stellar red shifts. Initially a part-time scientist, in 1856 Huggins erected an observatory in the garden of his house in the suburbs of London, and using instruments loaned from the Royal Society spent the rest of his life studying astronomy. He and his wife Margaret Lindsay Murray became, in 1876, the first to make serious use of dry plate photography in astronomy.