Hermann Carl Vogel, German astronomer, c 1890s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Vogel (1841-1907) was born in Leipzig, Germany, and educated at the university there, before being appointed as an asistant at the Leipzig Observatory, where he first became interested in astrophysics. In 1870 he began work in the observatory at Bothkamp, near Kiel, where he made some pioneering studies of the spectra of the major planets. Vogel was the first to achieve sufficient accuracy to measure the radial velocities of stars.