Bifurcated needles, 1968.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
One of the most popular vaccination instruments used in medicine was the very simple bifurcated needle. Developed in 1968 for the smallpox eradication campaign, these needles were used to pick up a drop of vaccine between the prongs and give 15 skin punctures. They could be sterilised by boiling or by being pased through a flame.