aeroscope portable kine camera with hand pump, 1912.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Patented in 1910 by the Polish engineer K Proszynski, the aeroscope was the first completely succesful hand-held cine camera. Powered by compresed air, it was used by newsreel cameramen and most of the leading film companies from 1912 until the advent of sound. A separate compartment could carry up to 400 feet (122 metres) of 35mm film.