Mallam's vaccinator, English, 1874.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
This vaccinator was made by Arnold and Sons of London. The 1853 Vaccination Act heralded an era of compulsory vaccination against smallpox. Consequently, a large number of different types of vaccinator were developed by medical men and manufactured by surgical instrument companies. Mallam's model adapts the principle of the mechanical scarificator, but employs gilded steel teeth in the place of blades. The surface is concave so that it can fit the arm of a child.