Inside title page to Newton's 'Principia Mathematica', 1687.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Book One of English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton's (1642-1727) 'Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica' applies the laws of motion to the behaviour of bodies. Book Two continues with the motion of resisted bodies in fluids and with the behaviour of fluids themselves. Book Three ('The System of the World') applies the Law of Universal Gravitation to the motion of planets, moons and comets within the Solar System. The 'Principia' (1687) established Newton's reputation as a great scientist. His discoveries were prolific and hugely influential on science and thought. He also wrote on the law of cooling, the binomial theorem and the calculus.