Stages in a trephination operation, c 1821-1831.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving showing in detail three stages in a trephination operation, taken from Volume 6 of 'Anatomie de L'Homme' by Jules Germain Cloquet (1790-1883). Over twenty surgical instruments are illustrated above. 'Anatomie de L'Homme' was a folio publication printed by C de Lasteyrie from 1821-1831. The practice of trepanning dates back several thousand years. Over the centuries, this surgical procedure continued to be used to treat a variety of symptoms, from migraine to mental illnes.