Albert Einstein, German mathematical physicist, c 1930s.
© NMeM / Daily Herald Archive / Science & Society Picture Library
Einstein (1879-1955) with his wife, Elsa (1876-1936), and two of their children. Einstein made fundamental contributions to physics which include his special (1905) and general (1915) theories of relativity, which posited the concept that time does not exist at the same rate for everyone and everything. Special Relativity produced the equation which expreses the equivalence between matter and energy: E=mc squared. In 1921, he received the Nobel Prize for Physics. Because of his political stand against the Nazis, Einstein had to leave Germany and went to live in the United States of America, taking citizenship. He was elected a Life Member of the Institute of Advanced Science in Princeton, New Jersey.