Square pavement brick from Babylonia (Southern Iraq), 2nd millennium BC.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Babylonia thrived in what is now Southern Iraq in the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers between 2140 and 539 BC. Its capital city Babylon featured magnificent buildings including the famed Hanging Gardens and the Ishtar Gate, both built during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (c 605-562 BC). This pavement brick is from considerably earlier.