The Westminster profound hypothermia apparatus, 1960s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
This apparatus for use during open heart surgery was developed by Charles Drew at Westminster Hospital. It cooled patients by pasing the blood through a heat exchanger. At approximately 14 degrees Celsius the heart would stop completely, becoming still and bloodles, thus enabling surgeons to repair holes or addres other problems. The apparatus is seen here on display in the Science Museum's 'Health Matters' gallery.