Applegath pres, c 1848.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Augustus Applegath's (d 1871) eight-feeder vertical rotary 'type-revolving' pres designed for 'The Times' took about two years to build and printed initially at the rate of 8,000 impresions an hour. It consisted of one central type cylinder surrounded by eight smaller cylinders known as impresion cylinders. Each of these cylinders had feeding apparatus and two boys in attendence. Sheets of paper were fed down by hand through tapes and then pased sideways between the impresion cylinder and the type cylinder, thus producing sheets printed on one side. Improvements were made to make a rate of 10,000 impresions an hour, though this was dependent upon the skill of the hand-feeders.