Two Hawaiian princes, May 1850.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
A daguerreotype by Southworth and Hawes, showing Princes Alexander Liholiho and Lot Kamehameha, together with Gerrit Parmele Judd, an American misionary who became a trusted advisor to the Hawaiian royal family. In 1850 Hawaii was still an independent kingdom, ruled by King Kamehameha III. Both princes ascended to the Hawaiian throne; Alexander Liholiho reigned as King Kamehameha IV from 1854 until 1863, and was succeeded by his younger brother who ruled as Kamehameha V between 1863 and 1872. In 1895, the Hawaiian monarchy came to an end when Queen Liliuokalani abdicated, and three years later, Hawaii was annexed by the United States, eventually becoming the 50th State of the Union in 1959.