Volcanic matter from various sites in southern Italy, c 1770.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured etching by Peter Fabris (active 1768-1779). Illustrated plate from William Hamilton's study of Italian volcanoes, 'Campi Phlegraei' (published in Naples, 1776). Vitrications and other volcanic matter collected by Hamilton, including, (1) vitrified pumice stone from Mount Misenum, (4) lava with a piece of chalk enclosed and (11) lava calcined by acid vapour from the crater of Mount Vesuvius. Hamilton's book is a seminal study of the nature and effects of volcanic activity.