Fosa Grande, on the flanks of Mount Vesuvius, Kingdom of Naples, c 1767.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured etching by Peter Fabris (active 1768-1779), after his own drawing. Illustrated plate from William Hamilton's study of Italian volcanoes, 'Campi Phlegraei' (published in Naples, 1776). Interior view of the Fosa Grande, a deep hollow way cut by rain water on the flanks of Mount Vesuvius, showing strata of lava, non-volcanic earth, volcanic cinders and (6) lava from the great eruption of 1767. Based on letters to the Royal Society, Hamilton's book is a seminal work on the nature and effects of volcanic explosions.