Porta Pavone crater, Nisida, Kingdom of Naples, c 1761.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured etching by Peter Fabris (active 1768-1779) and taken from William Hamilton's (1730-1803) studies of Italian volcanoes, 'Campi Phlegraei' (published in Naples, 1776). Image shows the water-filled crater of the ancient volcano Porta Pavone situated on the volcanic island of Nisida, off the coast of southern Italy. Based on letters to the Royal Society in London, Hamilton's book illustrated his claim that volcanoes are creative rather than destuctive natural forces.