The cone of Astruni, Kingdom of Naples, c 1760.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured etching by Peter Fabris (active 1768-1779), after his own drawing. Illustrated plate from William Hamilton's studies of Italian volcanoes, 'Campi Phlegraei' (published in Naples, 1776). A section of the cone of Astruni taken from this volcano's entrance, showing (1,2,3) loose volcanic matter intermixed with strata of cinders, pumice stones, lava and vitrified matter. Based on letters to the Royal Society, Hamilton's book was a more precise account of the nature and effects of volcanic activity than had previously existed.