Naples as seen from Posillipo, Kingdom of Naples, c 1766.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured etching by Peter Fabris (active 1768-1779) and taken from William Hamilton's (1730- 1803) study of Italian volcanoes, 'Campi Phlegraei', published in Naples in 1776. The image shows the Mountain of Pausilipo (now known as Posillipo) (1), Castle of Saint Elmo (2), Pizzofalcone (3), Castle Dell'Ovo (4), Mount Somma (5) and Mount Vesuvius (6). Hamilton's book was a more precise study of volcanoes than had previously existed, illustrating his claim than volcanoes were creative rather than destructive natural forces.