'Tractatus', the use of a quadrant to measure the height of a building, 1535.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Hand-coloured woodcut from the appendix of the 'Margarita Philosophica' by Gregorius Reisch (c 1467-1525). First printed in 1503, this encyclopaedia of knowledge was intended as a text book for scholars. it was divided into twelve 'books', each dealing with the science of one of the following: grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, astronomy, natural philosophy (physics), origin of natural objects (natural history), psychology, logic and ethics.