Nicostrata holding a hornbook and key, 1535.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
'Typus Gramatica' showing Nicostrata (also known as Carmenta), holding a hornbook and key, introducing a child into a tower of learning with six storeys. The lowest - Donatus, second - Priscianus, third - portraits of Aristotle (logic), Cicero (Rhetoric and Poetry), Boethius (Arithmetic). Fourth, Pythagorus (Music), Euclid (Geometry), Ptolemy (Astonomy), fifth - Aristotle (Physics), Seneca (Ethics). At the summit stands a Master of Sentences representing Theology. Mother to Evando, King of Arcadia, Nicostrata is known as a scholar of Greek letters and is often asociated with birth, children and Apollo. From Grammar, part of 'Margarita Philosophica' by Gregor Reisch (1467?- 1525). First printed in 1503. Hand-coloured wood-cut.