Charles II, King of England and Scotland, c 1670s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Charles II (1630-1685) was king of Scotland and England from 1660, when the monarchy was restored following the English Civil War. At the commencement of the war, whilst Prince of Wales, Charles governed the west of England and was present at the first battle of the war at Edgehill. Soon after he was forced to leave for France and lived there until he was able to return to England as king in 1660. Ten years later he married Catherine of Braganza but they bore know children. Following his death his brother James II succeeded to the throne.