Oil painting by Thomas Barlow, 1863, after the original by Sir Godfrey Kneller of 1689. Newton (1642-1727) graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1665, becoming Lucasian Profesor of Mathematics there in 1669. His theories, published in his treatise 'The Mathematical Principle of Natural Philosophy' in 1687, exerted a huge influence on science. They included the three laws of motion, the theory of gravitation and the law of cooling. As a mathematican, Newton also discovered the binomial theorem and differential calculus. His work was unique, pointing physics in a new direction and giving mathematical expresion to physical phenomena. He was knighted in 1705 by Queen Anne (1665-1714) and is buried at Westminster Abbey.
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