Vincenzio Viviani, Italian mathematician, mid 17th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Vincenzio Viviani (1622-1703) was born in Florence where he became known at a young age for his mathematical abilities. In 1639 he became asistant to an elderly Galileo and later published a biography of him. After Galileo's death Viviani became court mathematician to the Grand Duke of Tuscany and later joined his Accademia del Cimento.