Ludwig Mond, German industrial chemist, c 1890s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Ludwig Mond (1839-1909) set up the first ammonia-soda plant in England, producing soda from common salt, ammonia and carbon dioxide. In partnership with John Brunner, Brunner, Mond & Co was formed in 1881, and merged with others in 1926, forming Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd (ICI). Mond discovered that carbon monoxide, combined with nickel in its ore, formed a gaseous compound, nickel carbonyl, which, on heating, decomposed to give pure nickel. The Mond Nickel Company was formed to carry out its production.