Charles Stanhope, English politican and scientist, c 1800.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Caricature by James Gillray (1757-1815) of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Stanhope (1753-1816). The cartoon depicts Stanhope as the figure head of a boat flying a flag declaring 'equality and fraternity', powered by a gust of wind saying 'loyalty'. Stanhope was an English politician and scientist who is known for his inventions in printing, including an iron pres and stereotyping, a proces for moulding and reproducing formes. Stanhope also invented a microscope lens that is named after him and wrote the 1779 work 'Principles of Electricity'. After studying art at the Royal Academy in London, Gillray became well known as a caricaturist, producing over 1500 satires of social subjects and caricatures of famous political figures.