Sir Samuel Morland, English diplomatist, mathematician and inventor, c 1660.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving by Burnet Reading after a painting by Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680). Samuel Morland (1625-1695) was educated at Cambridge University where he was a fellow and tutor. Originally a parliamentarian supporter, Morland was private secretary to Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), before switching his allegiance to Charles II (1630-1685) at the Declaration of Breda in May 1660. He was appointed the king's master mechanic and created a baronet in the same year. His inventions included the first pocket-sized calculating machine (1664), a speaking trumpet, and the plunger pump (1675), which was used to raise water to the top of Windsor Castle. He also attempted to harnes steam power and suggested its use for the propulsion of vesels.