Raymond Lully, Spanish theologian, c 1300s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Engraving. Ramon Llull, also known as Raymond Lully (c 1232-1316), was born in Palma, Majorca. Following a miltary career Lully decided in 1266 to give up his life as a soldier to devote his time to converting Muslims to Catholicism. This resulted to him being banished from Tunis in 1291 and from Algeria in 1305. During a later visit to Tunis Lully was stoned and died from his injuries a few days later. The Lullists combined alchemy with religious mysticism although there is no proof that Lully himself practised alchemy.