Sir Norman Lockyer, English astronomer, c 1910.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Lockyer (1836-1920) was a notable British astronomer who, in 1866, was one of the first to make a spectroscopic examination of sunspots and, in 1868, he applied the name chromosphere to the layer of gas around the Sun. In the same year, and at the same time as Pierre Jansen (1824- 1907), he designed a spectroscope that could be used to observe solar prominences outside of a total eclipse. Lockyer also identified the element helium in the Sun 27 years before it was discovered on Earth.