Niels Bohr, Danish theoretical physicist, c 1950s.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
In 1911 Bohr (1885-1962) went to Cambridge University to work with J J Thomson (1856-1940) and later joined Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) at Manchester University. By 1939 he and G V Wheeler had developed the idea of nuclear fision. After the war he joined the atomic bomb programme in the USA but also organised the first Peace Conference in Geneva. Bohr was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1922. He was also a profesional footballer.