Sir William George Armstrong, British inventor and industrialist, c 1880.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Wood engraving from 'The Romance of Industry and Invention', by Robert Cochrane, London, 1899. In 1840, William Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Cragside (1810-1900) devised an improved hydraulic engine and two years later invented apparatus for producing electricity from steam. In 1845 he invented the hydraulic crane and later designed submarine mines for use in the Crimean War. His factory became particularly known for the production of the Armstrong breech-loading gun. Armstrong published writings on engineering subjects, including 'Electric Movement in Air and Water', 1897-1899.