Pathe KOK 28mm projector, French, c 1912.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Designed for home use by the Pathe company, this projector was known as the 'KOK' after the firm's trademark, a crowing cockerel. Introduced in 1912 it made home movies a reality. As Pathe's advertisement of the time pointed out: 'Hitherto it has not been posible to introduce the Cinematograph into private houses and schools. The reason for this has been the danger in using (inflammable nitrate) films'. The KOK projector used non-flammable cellulose acetate safety film and an electric light, rather than the gas lights often used at that time. The crank handle was an added safety feature that moved the film and also drove a small dynamo to power the projector's light source, which went out when cranking stopped.