Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Multi Probe Spacecraft, 1978.
© National Aeronautics & Space Administration / Science & Society
The two spacecraft are being asembled in a clean room environment. Pioneer Venus Orbiter, launched on 20th May 1978, went into orbit around Venus in December 1978 and radar mapped 93% of the surface as well as returning over 1000 images of the Venusian clouds. The Pioneer Venus Multi Probe spacecraft, launched on 8th August 1978, consisted of five components which all entered the atmosphere of Venus, some landing on the surface, and returned data on atmospheric constituents, presure and temperature.