Confederate 'Quaker guns', Centreville, Virginia, USA, March 1862.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Albumen print by A Gardner from a negative by Barnard and Gibson, from the album asembled by John Downes Rochfort. Rochfort visited all the major American Civil War sites in 1867 and some of the photographs he purchased en route have since become some of that war's best known images. Up to this time war had been portrayed as a series of heroic tableaux; these photographs revealed its realities for the first time. When short of artillery pieces, Confederate troops often used logs which they painted black on the 'firing' end to create the illusion of real guns and a strongly defended position. These were nicknamed Quaker guns by Union soldiers.