Marey's Chronophotographe camera, 1890.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Detail. The French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey (1830- 1904) pioneered the use of photography to record and analyse movement. This close-up view of the mechanism shows the film gate in which the film was clamped to expose each frame; it could take up to 40 pictures a second. The camera was constructed to use paper film, first produced by George Eastman's Kodak company in 1888.