Marey's Chronophotographe camera, 1890.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Detail. The French physiologist Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904) pioneered the use of photography to record and analyse movement. This close-up view of the Chronophotographe film mechanism shows the back plate raised to expose the circular bladed shutter behind. The peep hole in the foreground was used to check the focus of the image on the film. This camera was constructed to use paper film, first produced by George Eastman's Kodak company in 1888.