Marey's Chronophotographe camera, 1890.
© National Media Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
The French physiologist, Etienne-Jules Marey (1830-1904), was a pioneer in the use of photography to record and analyze movement. This camera employed celluloid film, introduced by Eastman in 1889, and was the first to demonstrate the esential characteristics of a cine camera. It recorded a series of still images on a ribbon of film which was moved intermittently between exposures.