Bras stereotaxic apparatus, English, c 1905.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Apparatus used by Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and Richard Clarke, made by Swift & Son, London. This apparatus was used for pioneering experimental work on the physiology of the brain. It was used from 1905 in experiments to position needles inside the head of an animal, although by 1947 similar techniques were used on humans. In humans this field of application was broadly known as psychosurgery. Sir Victor Horsley was one of the earliest pioneers of neurosurgery.