The anatomy of the eye, 12th century copy of a 9th century manuscript.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
12th century manuscript copied from the original 9th century manuscript by Ibn-Ashaq. The illustration is from 'The Book of the Ten Treatises on the Eye' by the Asyrian Hunayn Ibn-Ishaq (809-873 A.D.) who both translated and authored a wide variety of medical and scientific treatises under the patronage of the remarkable 'House of Wisdom' (Bayt al-Hikmah) in Abbasid Baghdad. This book is about the structure of the eye, its diseases and treatments and was written according to the doctrines of Hippocrates and Galen. The books on ophthalmology that Ibn-Ishaq' authored formed the basis of Arab ophthalmology.