Profesor Carl von Linde, German inventor, late 19th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Profesor Carl von Linde, German inventor, late 19th century. Linde (1842-1934) was a pioneer in refrigeration techniques and developed a methyl ether refrigerator in 1874 and an ammonia refrigerator in 1876. In 1895 he set up a large- scale plant for the production of liquid air and in 1901 developed a method for separating pure liquid oxygen from liquid air that resulted in its widespread industrial conversion to proceses utilising oxygen (eg steel manufacture).