J S Haldane's oxygen tent for four people, early 20th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
John Scott Haldane (1860-1936) was a pioneer of oxygen therapy. In 1906, in collaboration with John Gillies Priestley (1880-1941), he discovered that the respiratory reflex is triggered by an exces of carbon dioxide rather than oxygen deficiency. Haldane made many contributions to mine safety, the treatment of pulmonary disease, and devised a decompresion apparatus for divers.