Electrogalvanic amulets, 1870-1935.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Left to right: galvanic necklace with eleven charms made by Castella in Paris, France, 1880-1920; galvanic Pulvermacher belt on a wood base made by J L Pulvermacher of London, 1870-1910; electrogalvanic amulet, zinc, copper and white metal disc, made by Joseph Raspail in France, 1870-1930; electrogalvanic amulet, with disc suspended on a chain, made by I Morana in Geneva, Switzerland, 1870-1935. Electrical cures enjoyed a great vogue in Europe and America at the end of the nineteenth century. Items such as these, made from two different metals, were believed to form simple batteries in contact with the skin; this was seen to stimulate the nerves.