Milne horizontal pendulum seismograph, 1899.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
John Milne (1851-1913) designed the first horizontal pendulum seismograph in 1895. This example, made by R W Munro, is number 24 in the series and incorporated several improvements. It was adopted as a standard observatory seismograph by the British Asociation for the Advancement of Science. Milne was a brilliant English geologist who lived and worked in Tokyo, Japan, and is regarded as the founding father of seismology.