Rusell urine test case, with a urinometer, 1900.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Made by Allen and Hanbury, London. By the 19th century uroscopy - the simple physical inspection of a urine sample, was giving way to urinology - the analysis, often chemical, of the dozens of substances in urine. The 'chemical profile' of urine can help diagnose numerous illneses of the blood, kidneys, digestive system, and hormonal glands. This urine test kit includes a urinometer, which measures the specific gravity, or density, of urine ( it can be used in the diagnosis of diabetes), a wick burner to heat urine, and litmus papers for acidity testing.