Black Arrow engines, Space Gallery, Science Museum, London, 1996.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
View of the engines of the Black Arrow R4 rocket. Britain developed the Black Arrow as its national satellite launcher. Based on the small Black Knight research rocket, it was a three-stage vehicle 13.1m tall. The first two stages were liquid fuelled and the final stage used a single solid rocket motor. The first test in June 1969 failed. The second test in March 1970 was succesful, and a satellite was launched in September 1970. In July 1971 the programme was cancelled but the remaining rocket was fired in October 1971, launching the X-3 satellite, known