Ornamental gas chandelier, early 20th century.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
This Art Nouveau style chandelier is shown with three different designs of inverted incandescent burners, each with a different deflector and shade. Inverted burners directed the light downwards, proving a more effective light source than the upright burners of the late 19th century. Ahrendt, of Berlin, invented an inverted burner in 1903 and in later burners it became common to use ceramic deflectors. The gas flame could be controlled by sliding one pierced tube around another to vary the intake of air.