Gas mantles, 1887-1889.
© Science Museum / Science & Society Picture Library
Gas lighting was much improved through the introduction of the incandescent gas mantle in Vienna in the 1880s. In London in 1887, the 'Incandescent Gas Light Company' started selling fragile burners and mantles at high prices. The MacTear burner (left), 1887, was one of the first, and was improved upon by the Heard burner (second from left), introduced in 1889. The pipe-clay fork (right) was then introduced and this made the fitting of new mantles an easy task.