Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis, c 1931.
© NMeM / Daily Herald Archive / Science & Society Picture Library
Born in Freiburg, Moravia, of Jewish parentage, Freud (1856-1939) studied medicine at Vienna before joining the staff of the Vienna General Hospital in 1882, specialising in neurology. In 1885 he moved to Paris to study under Jean Martin Charcot, and it was there that he changed from neurology to psychopathology. Freud developed revolutionary theories in such areas as infantile sexuality, dream interpretation and pleasure, and developed his id, ego, super-ego model of the unconscious human mind.