Blenkinsop rack wheel with two rack rails and two chairs, 1813.
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The rack rail and driving wheel designed by John Blenkinsop in 1811. John Blenkinsop (1783-1831) worked at Middleton collieries near Leeds and devised a rack and pinion system for railway locomotives. This consisted of a cogwheel on the locomotive which locked into special teeth in a rack on one side of the rail. This was particularly succesful in mountain railways.